Once upon a tile in Lisbon…

The tiles in Lisbon are one of the defining elements of the city. This is the history of the azulejos and how they almost disappeared in the 1900s.

Written by Michael Turtle

Michael Turtle is the founder of Time Travel Turtle. A journalist for more than 20 years, he's been travelling the world since 2011.

Michael Turtle is the founder of Time Travel Turtle and has been travelling full time for a decade.


Portuguese tiles - the story of Lisbon's azulejos

The tiles in Lisbon are one of the defining elements of the city, and you can see them everywhere - from the Lisbon Tile Musuem to the walls of the metro stations.

As well as some tips on the best places to see tiles in Lisbon, I wanted to share some information about the famous azulejos (Lisbon tiles).

I don’t think you can appreciate the beauty of Lisbon without considering its Portuguese tiles. They glitter on the facades of apartment blocks, dazzle in the public squares, bring colour to the interiors of churches, and even make a trip on the metro more entertaining.

But it hasn’t always been this way. In fact, it’s been less than 100 years since tiles made a comeback in Lisbon.

Azulejos, Portuguese tiles in Lisbon

Tile Museum Lisbon

At the Tile Museum Lisbon (Museo do Azulejo Lisboa), you can trace the story of the decorative feature. Room by room, their styles develop and their uses change. From decorative, to artistic. From artistic, to practical.

Tile Museum Lisbon, Portugal

The tiles are known in Portugal as ‘azulejo’. Although the word is derived from the Arabic ‘az-zulayj’ (meaning ‘polished stone’) it wasn’t actually the Moors who brought the tiles here, as many people think.

It wasn’t until the 15th century after the Moors had retreated to North Africa, that the use of tiles was imported from neighbouring Spain – mainly because King Manuel I had seen them in Granada and wanted to decorate his palace at Sintra the same way.

Azulejos, Portuguese tiles in Lisbon

These first designs, as you can see at the Tile Museum Lisbon, were simple. Still beautiful, no doubt, but the patterns were formed just with geometric patterns and a limited colour palette.

Tile Museum Lisbon, Portugal

Over time, the Portuguese artists added their own touches – animals, plants, even humans. The simple patterns were replaced with vivid scenes of history and fiction, telling tales from the Age of Discoveries and from The Bible.

Tile Museum Lisbon, Portugal

Lisbon’s Tile Museum is housed these days in the building of the former Madre de Deus convent. The site was chosen because the convent was famous for its stunning displays of azulejo.

Tile Museum Lisbon, Portugal

Part of the museum is the convent’s church and on the walls inside you can see incredible examples of how Portuguese tiles were used to tell stories. The scenes here are vivid representations of famous Catholic stories.

Tile Museum Lisbon, Portugal

You’ll notice that the tiles in the Madre de Deus church are blue and white. People often think that these are the standard colours of Portuguese tiles because they are so prevalent – but they are actually just the fashion of a certain period.

With trade increasing between Europe and Asia after the discovery of the sea route by Vasco da Gama, Asian art became very trendy in Portugal. These tile displays were influenced by one of the most popular types of this art – the Ming Dynasty porcelain from China.

Azulejos, Portuguese tiles in Lisbon

Visiting the Tile Museum Lisbon exposes you to more than just an art gallery, it’s also an insight into the culture of the city and how that was influenced by its history. I highly recommend you pop in when you’re in town.

It’s free to visit the Tile Museum Lisbon if you’re using the Lisboa Card. I’ve got lots more information in another story about whether the Lisboa Card is worth it.

As well as the Tile Museum, there are dozens of other places to see tiles in Lisbon. You’ll come across a lot of them as you wander the city, but I would recommend a guided tour to show you the best of the tiles and the city. There are a few good options here:

Where to see tiles in Lisbon

You only have to walk the streets to realise that there are many more hues in use with the tiles in Lisbon than just blue and white. So many of the residential buildings throughout the city are covered in patterned tiles, full of colour, and a wall of art.

Azulejos, Portuguese tiles in Lisbon

The use of azulejo on the outside of buildings was extremely popular in the 18th and into the 19th century and the production of tiles in Portugal reached a peak. It was partly about the art – the aesthetics were certainly appreciated by the general population – but it was also about practicalities.

When buildings were being constructed, people realised that tiles on the outside helped protect against dampness, kept homes cooler in summer, and even reduced noise coming in from the street.

Azulejos, Portuguese tiles in Lisbon

But, as is often the case, as soon as something became common, it lost its value. The elites of Lisbon became less interested in tile art because it was seen as a lower class – no longer something that adorned churches but covered the homes of poor people.

From a civic perspective, azulejo had fallen out of favour by the beginning of the 20th century.

Azulejos, Portuguese tiles in Lisbon

There was something in the 1950s that occurred that is credited with making Portuguese tiles in Lisbon cool again. Something that I have already written a bit about – the construction of the Lisbon Metro.

The Azulejos tiles revival

When the first stations of the Lisbon Metro were being built, the authorities asked local artist Maria Keil to design artistic wall coverings for them. She chose to decorate them in tiles – and this began a tradition that would see every future metro station decorated with incredible tile art.

Parque, Lisbon Metro Art

Not since King Manuel I was dazzled by the tiles at Granada and decorated his Sintra palace in that style has a single person had such an impact on the development of azulejo in Portugal. Maria Keil is credited with being the driving force for reviving traditional tile techniques and their incorporation into new artistic possibilities.

And that’s what you’ll also notice today in Lisbon – how the historic fits with the modern, traditional azulejo with cool cutting-edge tile art. It’s a truly Portuguese art form that has weathered the years, just as it helps the buildings it covers do the same.

Tile Museum Lisbon, Portugal

I would recommend visiting the Tile Museum Lisbon (Museo do Azulejo Lisboa) and I have a few more details about that below. But there are also these Lisbon experiences that will give you a deeper insight into the story of azulejo.

Of course, in the meantime, just make sure you look around as you explore Lisbon. The city is a gallery and the art is everywhere you go.

Where is the National Tile Museum?

The address of the National Tile Museum is Rua da Madre de Deus, 4, 1900-312 Lisboa, Portugal. You can see it on a map here.

How do you get to the National Tile Museum?

By public transport, the most convenient way to get to the Tile Museum is by bus, using numbers 718, 742, 794, 759.
Otherwise, it is about a 20-minute walk from Santa Apolonia Station metro station.

What time is the National Tile Museum open?

The National Tile Museum is open Tuesday to Sunday: 10:00 – 13:00 and 14:00 – 18:00.
It is closed every Monday, as well as January 1, Easter Sunday, May 1, June 13, and Christmas Day.

How much does it cost to visit the National Tile Museum?

Regular admission to the National Tile Museum costs €8. For a concession, it is €4.
Entry is free with the Lisboa Card.

More information

For more information, you can visit the museum’s official website.


I’ve got a detailed story about where to stay in Lisbon you can read, or have a look at some of these highlights in the city centre:


If you’re looking for a budget option, the Lost Inn Lisbon is right in the heart of the city.


For cheap private accommodation, there are some lovely guesthouses like City Lofts Lisbon.


If you’re interested in something with a bit more style, I would recommend the Lx Boutique Hotel.


And for some real luxury, have a look at the incredible Memmo Príncipe Real.

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