A concrete jungle

The French city of Le Havre has been completely rebuilt out of concrete since the Second World War. It creates a strange effect – but a beautiful one you have to see for yourself.

Written by Michael Turtle

Michael Turtle is the founder of Time Travel Turtle. A journalist for more than 20 years, he's been travelling the world since 2011.

Michael Turtle is the founder of Time Travel Turtle and has been travelling full time for a decade.


Le Havre, Normandy, France

The tower of concrete rises up in front of me. A square base connects it to the ground but, above, it reaches up to the sky 107 metres high.

It looks like it could be some kind of communist statue.

If I was in a former Soviet country, I would bet on it being some kind of tribute to a war hero. If I was in North Korea, it would probably be a memorial to Dear Leader and/or a celebration of how well fed everyone is.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

But I’m in France. In the city of Le Havre in Normandy, to be exact. And this is no piece of propaganda. It truly is a symbol of rejuvenation.

This tower is the Church of Saint Joseph. It may look grey and brutalist from the outside but, inside, it bursts with colour. I have no idea what to expect as I walk in through the doors but it turns out to be unlike anything I have seen before. Expectations may have been useless.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

The altar is in the centre of the church’s square base and the congregation sits around it on all sides like a theatre in the round.

Directly above it rises the tower, which is hollow on the inside.

The markings I could see from the street turn out to be coloured windows and, with the sun blazing today, they beam a kaleidoscope throughout the whole building.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

In the Church of St Joseph, the effect is concentrated. All through the city, I find it in some diffused form.

For almost the entirety of Le Havre’s city centre is built from this same grey concrete – but what stands out is the colour that shines from within.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

The rebuilding of Le Havre

Le Havre was severely bombed during the Second World War and pretty much all of the centre of the city was destroyed or unusable. Even before the conflict ended, the decision was made to rebuild Le Havre – but in a style unique across Europe.

Under the leadership of Auguste Perret, the entire urban landscape was designed as one single interconnected plan. Rather than the haphazard collection of buildings from different eras and different architects that most cities have, Le Havre was intended to have a harmony.

Buildings may have their own look and hit a different note, but they are singing from the same melody.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France
Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

It is one of the most remarkable urban reconstruction projects in Europe. As I walk through the streets, I find that the dream has been achieved.

You don’t notice when each building ends and the next starts – but if you stop and take in the panorama, you’ll realise that each wall that surrounds you looks slightly different.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

A row of windows is interrupted by an internal balcony; rectangles of yellow and orange cover up part of a walkway; hundreds of narrow sunlights create a pattern by themselves; a protruding wall gives texture to what might otherwise have been plain.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

The town planners made a decision to dramatically reduce the density of the city with their new design.

The grid system they implemented took the residential sections from 2000 people per hectare to just 800 per hectare. Gardens and courtyards were integrated into the apartment blocks so there is light and freshness between them all and the harmony is carried through the air.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France
Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

Visiting Le Havre

At the western end of the city is the beach, which is a strange juxtaposition with a concrete city. On a nice day, it is a good place to either start or finish a visit to Le Havre.

Funnily enough, even it has been incorporated into the urban design and the road that leads from the shore towards the centre feels like a grand entry gate with large buildings on either side and a wide grassy centre.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France
Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

Towards the eastern end of the rebuilt centre is the City Hall, which is a perfect monument to the architectural style that now defines Le Havre. Clearly concrete and with minimal decoration, it still has the feel of neoclassicism that was the intention of the designers.

The blocks to the south have a mix of residential and commercial – both of which blend together seamlessly as you would expect. Walking through these streets without set direction will take you through good examples of the style of the city.

Seeing Le Havre, Normandy, France

And then, of course, there’s the highlight of Le Havre – the Church of Saint Joseph. It can be seen from the surrounding streets and is useful as a reference point if you happen to get lost. But it is much more than that.

In many ways, the church is an unofficial icon of what the city has become. Rising up from adversity, constructed of dull concrete, but with a vibrant and lively heart inside.

This is a city that has found beauty through consistency and turned destruction into community.


You’ll be able to find some hotels in gorgeous Art Nouveau buildings and there are lots of affordable options in Riga’s historic centre.


With large clean rooms, The People Le Havre offers a really comfortable space along with friendly staff.


You’ll get good value at Smart Appart Le Havre, which has lovely modern apartments of different sizes.


While it’s still at the affordable end of the range, Hôtel Le Marignan has some lovely design aspects that give it a boutique feel.


Right on the water with amazing views, I think Hilton Garden Inn is the nicest hotel in the city.

Time Travel Turtle was supported by Atout France and Brittany Ferries but the opinions, over-written descriptions and bad jokes are his own.


This site is on the UNESCO World Heritage List!
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11 thoughts on “A concrete jungle”

  1. I find it fascinating to look at how different cities rebuilt themselves after the end of the Second World War. And I’d agree with you – I’d have guessed Soviet based just on that top photo.

    • There are a few good examples of rebuilding, aren’t there – Rotterdam, Dresden, etc. This is a pretty unique way of doing it, though. It certainly is unlike any other city I’ve visited and is a special experience to see it for yourself.

    • I can see why, without knowing too much about it, it would not seem like an attractive place to visit. It is just a bunch of concrete buildings, after all. But hopefully you’ll see it for yourself and realise how beautiful it actually is! (Especially on a nice sunny day.)

  2. What a surprise to catch up on your blog and see the city where I grew up featured so beautifully! My parents still leave there. My grand-father and another store owner were the first ones to get the keys after the rebuilding! I have spent most of my childhood in a typical Perret apartment 🙂
    And maybe you don’t know but at the end of the beach boulevard there is the town of Sainte Adresse which was the administrative capital of Belgium during the first world war when the Belgium when the government took exile here.
    Thanks for sharing it with the world!

    • That’s awesome to hear you grew up there. Did you think it was a pretty city too? I thought it was fantastic but maybe you get bored of it after years of living there. Unfortunately I didn’t get a chance to see inside an apartment but I’ve seen photos and they look pretty retro!! 🙂

      • Actually you tend to love Le Havre as a kid with the beach and all, then find it horrible and grey as a teenager. You leave to study and work…. and then dream of living there again. So many of my friends would like to move back to Le Havre for its environment, large streets and pace.

  3. Nice post! Although I’ve been to France, but didn’t see any of these places… But that’s a good reason to come back! I love these massive-kinda buildings, I’ve seen some of them in Moscow, when we went on a tour with Travel all Russia few years ago. There’s nothing more magnificent than a building that boggles your mind by how it was build.

    • I know what you mean. Althought it would be easy to say that they’re not a beautiful as some of the classic European architecture, I think there is actually something really pretty about these buildings – particularly the way they all fit together to make the city.


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