The last dynasty of Vietnam

The dynasties that lived here in the Imperial City of Hue didn’t just influence Vietnam, they changed the world.

Written by Michael Turtle

Michael Turtle is the founder of Time Travel Turtle. He has been a journalist for more than 20 years and has travelled the world full time since 2011.

Michael Turtle is the founder of Time Travel Turtle and has been travelling full time for a decade.


The Imperial City Hue

The Hue Imperial City was one of the most important political centres of the country. It’s about more than just the history of Hue – this was essentially the Vietnam Imperial City!

Remember the name Gia Long. It’ll be important. And it will relate to more of history than you realise.

This man, born 250 years ago, may not be a household name. He may not be someone you spend hours studying in school. But here in Vietnam, he is integral to the story of the country.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

Gia Long was the first emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty. He created this dynasty with blood, attacking self-styled emperors and rulers of different tracts of land in the region – bits that had previously been taken from Siam (Thailand) or Khmer (Cambodia).

He took their land over a number of years and united them into a single empire. The date was 1802.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

What was the shape of this new country? Well, it looked like Vietnam today.

Gia Long had created what we know as modern Vietnam and the Nguyen Dynasty – which would be the last of the dynasties in the country – would rule over it for the next 143 years.

The capital of the Nguyen Dynasty was in the city of Hue, and that brings me to my visit to the old imperial city here.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam
Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

The Hue Citadel

The Imperial City of Hue was once an enormous complex full of all the executive and bureaucracy you would expect from a country’s capital. It was enclosed within a square fortress (also known as the Hue Citadel), with each of the four walls about 2 kilometres long and a wide moat on the outside.

Visiting the Imperial City will be a highlight of your time in Hue and you’ll get a lot more out of it with a guided tour. I would recommend this excellent full-day city tour or, alternatively, this private guided tour of the Imperial City.

The Hue Citadel site was chosen by experts in ‘geomancy’ a spiritual science that looks for good omens in the natural landscapes. It was decided that the Perfume River and the mountains here would protect the city, because they looked like snakes and lions.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

All through this huge city were temples, palaces, offices, gardens, and residences. The most important bit was in the middle.

It was called the Purple Forbidden City and it was where the emperor and his closest confidants lived and worked. Once, it would have been inaccessible to most people. Now, of course, we can all walk through it and see what remains.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

I say ‘see what remains’ because much of the Imperial City of Hue has been destroyed.

Although natural disasters and the hand of time played their part, it was really the Vietnam War that caused most of the damage.

The North Vietnamese Army attacked Hue in January of 1968 and the Allied forces responded with bombings. Of the 160 significant buildings within the site, only 10 major ones survived the battle.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

It takes a long time to walk through the Imperial City as a tourist. Partly because of the sheer size but also because there are quite a few different sections to look at.

Buildings in the Hue Citadel have gradually been restored over the years and you can see that more continual work is taking place to restore even more. Although there are large parts of the site that are still empty, there are plenty of things to see.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

There’s the main Thai Hoa Palace near the main entrance, where the emperor would have conducted much of his official business…

A collection of temples to the west of the palace are in excellent condition…

Residences to the north of that show a bit of daily life for the elite…

And the in the centre of the Hue Citadel site are the remains of two more palaces with their beautiful covered alcoves.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

I spend about two hours in the Hue Imperial City – and that’s just wandering around on my own. If you had a guide, telling you the stories and giving detailed information, it could take even longer.

That’s because, remember, the Nguyen Dynasty lasted for 143 years.

If you’re interested in having a guided tour, this full-day tour is excellent. Or I would also recommend one of these options:


There’s a lot of history here as buildings came and went and the needs of the empire expanded. Different emperors (there were 13 of them) wanted to make their mark on the country and their capital.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam
Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

One of the reasons the Nguyen Dynasty was able to come to power in the first place, and remain there for so long, was because of its alliance with France.

French forces helped Gia Long (remember him?) unify Vietnam in the first place through the Versailles Treaty of 1787 (different to the famous treaty after the First World War).

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

As France expanded its influence in Indochina during the 19th century, it gradually took more and more control of different territories within Vietnam.

In simple terms, though, the real objective of the French was China and so they were relatively happy for the Vietnamese to keep their emperor as the titular head of the country, even if they had little actual power.

Imperial City of Hue, Vietnam

It was this relationship between the emperors of the Nguyen Dynasty and the French that facilitated European control for so long, that led to the First Indochina War, which led to the Vietnam War.

Ok, that’s an extremely basic description of decades of history, but I hope you see the point I’m making.

An event like the Vietnam War, something we consider to be ‘modern history’, can in many ways be traced back to Gia Long taking the assistance of France to create his unified empire.

This is what makes the Imperial City of Hue so interesting to me.

It seems like a part of an old Asian history that you visit because that’s what you do when you’re a tourist in Vietnam. But look at it from a broader perspective and its significance reaches a lot closer to home.

Where is the Imperial City of Hue?

The Hue Imperial City is on the northern side of the Perfume River, across from the central part of the city. You enter through the Meridian Gate, which is off Le Duan street.

You can see it on a map here.

How do you get to the Imperial City of Hue?

The Hue Imperial City is across the river from the main train station, if you are coming from another city on the train line. From Hoi An, there are regular buses to Hue. You can easily walk from the tourist area to the main entrance gate (it will take less than 15 minutes).

When is the Imperial City of Hue open?

The Hue Imperial City is open every day from 07:00 – 18:00.

How much does it cost to visit the Imperial City of Hue?

Admission to the Hue Imperial city for adults is 150,000 VND (US$6.50) and 30,000 VND (US$1.30) for children.

Although I think the Imperial City is the highlight, there are some other things to do in Hue as well that you might be interested in.

Other things to do in Hue

The most popular sights in Hue other than the citadel are the tombs of the emperors. They are spread out along the Perfume River south of the city. You can get a taxi to take you to see them, you can ride a bike, or you can go on a boat cruise.

Another lovely sight is the Thien Mu Pagoda, which is on a bank of the river and offers a lovely view of the area from the top. It’s a rather tall and striking building and there are a few things to see within the pagoda itself. But it’s really about the scenery here.

Speaking of views, you can also head up to Bunker Hill, which used to be a military vantage point, to get a great perspective of the city.

Like most cities in Vietnam, there are opportunities to see the vibrant and bustling local markets. I would suggest heading to Dong Ba Market if you’re interested in that.

Hue is a great place to do something like a street food tour. Have a look at some of these cool guided experiences around town:


And if you’re looking for a bit of adventure, you might like to head out to this cool abandoned waterpark in Hue.


Many tourists pass through Hue quickly but it actually has some spectacular accommodation options if you want to relax.


For a good backpacker option, I would suggest staying at Why Not?. (Yes, that’s its real name.)


A good choice for a budget hotel in a great location is the Four Seasons Hotel.


For a relaxing ecoresort, Pilgrimage Village Boutique Resort & Spa is wonderful.


And for luxury by the beach, try Ana Mandara Hue Beach Resort.


This site is on the UNESCO World Heritage List!
I'm on a mission to visit as many World Heritage Sites as I can. Only about 800 more to go... eek!

14 thoughts on “The last dynasty of Vietnam”

  1. According to Vietnamese history, Hue Imperial City is the most bulky and large project with the ten thousand people who took part in building, and this complex has been lasted during 30 years under two kings is Gia Long King and Minh Mang Kinh.

  2. Awesome pictures! Exploring the Forbidden City is such a voyage back in time! It’s an amazing place that is so steeped in history and so captivating. Your information was very interesting, I had never thought about how Gia Long’s decisions played a role in shaping such recent history.

    • I had never thought about the impact of Gia Long either. In fact, I hadn’t even really heard of him. I suspect most people haven’t. But these are the interesting kinds of things you discover along the way! 🙂

  3. Really excellent, concise summary of the history! I was just at the Citadel, and this consolidated all the stories for me even more. I linked it with my photos when I posted on fb. 🙂

    • Also, thanks for mentioning the impact and destruction of the Vietnam War, *and* for connecting it back to earlier history, but for not dwelling on it like sometimes happens (as it becomes the only way us non-Vietnamese think about Vietnam).

  4. Great writing Mike. I love history and, it’s one of the reasons I get to constantly visit Vietnam. One of my favourites is visiting the Citadel. You could easily spend a day in the former walled city of the Nguyen Dynasty.


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